Ancient shellfish remains rewrite 10,000-year history of El Nino cycles

The middens are ancient dumping sites that typically contain a mix of mollusk shells, fish and bird bones, ceramics, cloth, charcoal, maize and other plants. -  M. Carré / Univ. of Montpellier
The middens are ancient dumping sites that typically contain a mix of mollusk shells, fish and bird bones, ceramics, cloth, charcoal, maize and other plants. – M. Carré / Univ. of Montpellier

The planet’s largest and most powerful driver of climate changes from one year to the next, the El Niño Southern Oscillation in the tropical Pacific Ocean, was widely thought to have been weaker in ancient times because of a different configuration of the Earth’s orbit. But scientists analyzing 25-foot piles of ancient shells have found that the El Niños 10,000 years ago were as strong and frequent as the ones we experience today.

The results, from the University of Washington and University of Montpellier, question how well computer models can reproduce historical El Niño cycles, or predict how they could change under future climates. The paper is now online and will appear in an upcoming issue of Science.

“We thought we understood what influences the El Niño mode of climate variation, and we’ve been able to show that we actually don’t understand it very well,” said Julian Sachs, a UW professor of oceanography.

The ancient shellfish feasts also upend a widely held interpretation of past climate.

“Our data contradicts the hypothesis that El Niño activity was very reduced 10,000 years ago, and then slowly increased since then,” said first author Matthieu Carré, who did the research as a UW postdoctoral researcher and now holds a faculty position at the University of Montpellier in France.

In 2007, while at the UW-based Joint Institute for the Study of the Atmosphere and Ocean, Carré accompanied archaeologists to seven sites in coastal Peru. Together they sampled 25-foot-tall piles of shells from Mesodesma donacium clams eaten and then discarded over centuries into piles that archaeologists call middens.

While in graduate school, Carré had developed a technique to analyze shell layers to get ocean temperatures, using carbon dating of charcoal from fires to get the year, and the ratio of oxygen isotopes in the growth layers to get the water temperatures as the shell was forming.

The shells provide 1- to 3-year-long records of monthly temperature of the Pacific Ocean along the coast of Peru. Combining layers of shells from each site gives water temperatures for intervals spanning 100 to 1,000 years during the past 10,000 years.

The new record shows that 10,000 years ago the El Niño cycles were strong, contradicting the current leading interpretations. Roughly 7,000 years ago the shells show a shift to the central Pacific of the most severe El Niño impacts, followed by a lull in the strength and occurrence of El Niño from about 6,000 to 4,000 years ago.

One possible explanation for the surprising finding of a strong El Niño 10,000 years ago was that some other factor was compensating for the dampening effect expected from cyclical changes in Earth’s orbit around the sun during that period.

“The best candidate is the polar ice sheet, which was melting very fast in this period and may have increased El Niño activity by changing ocean currents,” Carré said.

Around 6,000 years ago most of the ice age floes would have finished melting, so the effect of Earth’s orbital geometry might have taken over then to cause the period of weak El Niños.

In previous studies, warm-water shells and evidence of flooding in Andean lakes had been interpreted as signs of a much weaker El Niño around 10,000 years ago.

The new data is more reliable, Carré said, for three reasons: the Peruvian coast is strongly affected by El Niño; the shells record ocean temperature, which is the most important parameter for the El Niño cycles; and the ability to record seasonal changes, the timescale at which El Niño can be observed.

“Climate models and a variety of datasets had concluded that El Niños were essentially nonexistent, did not occur, before 6,000 to 8,000 years ago,” Sachs said. “Our results very clearly show that this is not the case, and suggest that current understanding of the El Niño system is incomplete.

The next ‘Big One’ for the Bay Area may be a cluster of major quakes

A cluster of closely timed earthquakes over 100 years in the 17th and 18th centuries released as much accumulated stress on San Francisco Bay Area’s major faults as the Great 1906 San Francisco earthquake, suggesting two possible scenarios for the next “Big One” for the region, according to new research published by the Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America (BSSA).

“The plates are moving,” said David Schwartz, a geologist with the U.S. Geological Survey and co-author of the study. “The stress is re-accumulating, and all of these faults have to catch up. How are they going to catch up?”

The San Francisco Bay Region (SFBR) is considered within the boundary between the Pacific and North American plates. Energy released during its earthquake cycle occurs along the region’s principal faults: the San Andreas, San Gregorio, Calaveras, Hayward-Rodgers Creek, Greenville, and Concord-Green Valley faults.

“The 1906 quake happened when there were fewer people, and the area was much less developed,” said Schwartz. “The earthquake had the beneficial effect of releasing the plate boundary stress and relaxing the crust, ushering in a period of low level earthquake activity.”

The earthquake cycle reflects the accumulation of stress, its release as slip on a fault or a set of faults, and its re-accumulation and re-release. The San Francisco Bay Area has not experienced a full earthquake cycle since its been occupied by people who have reported earthquake activity, either through written records or instrumentation. Founded in 1776, the Mission Dolores and the Presidio in San Francisco kept records of felt earthquakes and earthquake damage, marking the starting point for the historic earthquake record for the region.

“We are looking back at the past to get a more reasonable view of what’s going to happen decades down the road,” said Schwartz. “The only way to get a long history is to do these paleoseismic studies, which can help construct the rupture histories of the faults and the region. We are trying to see what went on and understand the uncertainties for the Bay Area.”

Schwartz and colleagues excavated trenches across faults, observing past surface ruptures from the most recent earthquakes on the major faults in the area. Radiocarbon dating of detrital charcoal and the presence of non-native pollen established the dates of paleoearthquakes, expanding the span of information of large events back to 1600.

The trenching studies suggest that between 1690 and the founding of the Mission Dolores and Presidio in 1776, a cluster of earthquakes ranging from magnitude 6.6 to 7.8 occurred on the Hayward fault (north and south segments), San Andreas fault (North Coast and San Juan Bautista segments), northern Calaveras fault, Rodgers Creek fault, and San Gregorio fault. There are no paleoearthquake data for the Greenville fault or northern extension of the Concord-Green Valley fault during this time interval.

“What the cluster of earthquakes did in our calculations was to release an amount of energy somewhat comparable to the amount released in the crust by the 1906 quake,” said Schwartz.

As stress on the region accumulates, the authors see at least two modes of energy release – one is a great earthquake and other is a cluster of large earthquakes. The probability for how the system will rupture is spread out over all faults in the region, making a cluster of large earthquakes more likely than a single great earthquake.

“Everybody is still thinking about a repeat of the 1906 quake,” said Schwartz. “It’s one thing to have a 1906-like earthquake where seismic activity is shut off, and we slide through the next 110 years in relative quiet. But what happens if every five years we get a magnitude 6.8 or 7.2? That’s not outside the realm of possibility.”

San Francisco’s big 1906 quake was third of a series on San Andreas Fault

University of Oregon doctoral student Ashley Streig shows a tree stump on which tree-ring dating indicates the tree was cut prior to the earthquake of 1838 on the San Andreas Fault in the Santa Cruz Mountains. -  University of Oregon
University of Oregon doctoral student Ashley Streig shows a tree stump on which tree-ring dating indicates the tree was cut prior to the earthquake of 1838 on the San Andreas Fault in the Santa Cruz Mountains. – University of Oregon

Research led by a University of Oregon doctoral student in California’s Santa Cruz Mountains has uncovered geologic evidence that supports historical narratives for two earthquakes in the 68 years prior to San Francisco’s devastating 1906 disaster.

The evidence places the two earthquakes, in 1838 and 1890, on the San Andreas Fault, as theorized by many researchers based on written accounts about damage to Spanish-built missions in the Monterey and San Francisco bay areas. These two quakes, as in 1906, were surface-rupturing events, the researchers concluded.

Continuing work, says San Francisco Bay-area native Ashley R. Streig, will dig deeper into the region’s geological record — layers of sediment along the fault — to determine if the ensuing seismically quiet years make up a normal pattern — or not — of quake frequency along the fault.

Streig is lead author of the study, published in this month’s issue of the Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. She collaborated on the project with her doctoral adviser Ray Weldon, professor of the UO’s Department of Geological Sciences, and Timothy E. Dawson of the Menlo Park office of the California Geological Survey.

The study was the first to fully map the active fault trace in the Santa Cruz Mountains using a combination of on-the-ground observations and airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), a remote sensing technology. The Santa Cruz Mountains run for about 39 miles from south of San Francisco to near San Juan Batista. Hazel Dell is east of Santa Cruz and north of Watsonville.

“We found the first geologic evidence of surface rupture by what looks like the 1838 and 1890 earthquakes, as well as 1906,” said Streig, whose introduction to major earthquakes came at age 11 during the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake on a deep sub-fault of the San Andreas Fault zone. That quake, which disrupted baseball’s World Series, forced her family to camp outside their home.

Unlike the 1906 quake that ruptured 470 km (296 mi) of the fault, the 1838 and 1890 quakes ruptured shorter portions of the fault, possibly limited to the Santa Cruz Mountains. “This is the first time we have had good, clear geologic evidence of these historic 19th century earthquakes,” she said. “It’s important because it tells us that we had three surface ruptures, really closely spaced in time that all had fairly large displacements of at least half a meter and probably larger.”

The team identified ax-cut wood chips, tree stumps and charcoal fragments from early logging efforts in unexpectedly deep layers of sediment, 1.5 meters (five feet) below the ground, and document evidence of three earthquakes since logging occurred at the site. The logging story emerged from 16 trenches dug in 2008, 2010 and 2011 along the fault at the Hazel Dell site in the mountain range.

High-resolution radiocarbon dating of tree-rings from the wood chips and charcoal confirm these are post European deposits, and the geologic earthquake evidence coincides with written accounts describing local earthquake damage, including damage to Spanish missions in 1838, and in a USGS publication of earthquakes in 1890 catalogued by an astronomer from Lick Observatory.

Additionally, in 1906 individuals living near the Hazel Dell site reported to geologists that cracks from the 1906 earthquake had occurred just where they had 16 years earlier, in 1890, which, Streig and colleagues say, was probably centered in the Hazel Dell region. Another displacement of sediment at the Hazel Dell site matched the timeline of the 1906 quake.

The project also allowed the team to conclude that another historically reported quake, in 1865, was not surface rupturing, but it was probably deep and, like the 1989 event, occurred on a sub zone of the San Andreas Fault. Conventional thinking, Streig said, has suggested that the San Andreas Fault always ruptures in a long-reaching fashion similar to the 1906 earthquake. This study, however, points to more regionally confined ruptures as well.

“This all tells us that there are more frequent surface-rupturing earthquakes on this section of the fault than have been previously identified, certainly in the historic period,” Streig said. “This becomes important to earthquake models because it is saying something about the connectivity of all these fault sections — and how they might link up.”

The frequency of the quakes in the Santa Cruz Mountains, she added, must have been a terrifying experience for settlers during the 68-year period.

“This study is the first to show three historic ruptures on the San Andreas Fault outside the special case of Parkfield,” Weldon said, referring to a region in mountains to the south of the Santa Cruz range where six magnitude 6-plus earthquakes occurred between 1857 and 1966. “The earthquakes of 1838 and 1890 were known to be somewhere nearby from shaking, but now we know the San Andreas Fault ruptured three times on the same piece of the fault in less than 100 years.”

More broadly, Weldon said, having multiple paleoseismic sites close together on a major fault, geologists now realize that interpretations gleaned from single-site evidence probably aren’t reliable. “We need to spend more time reproducing or confirming results rather than rushing to the next fault if we are going to get it right,” he said. “Ashley’s combination of historical research, C-14 dating, tree rings, pollen and stratigraphic correlation between sites has allowed us to credibly argue for precision that allows identification of the 1838 and 1890 earthquakes.”

“Researchers at the University of Oregon are using tools and technologies to further our understanding of the dynamic forces that continue to shape our planet and impact its people,” said Kimberly Andrews Espy, vice president for research and innovation and dean of the UO Graduate School. “This research furthers our understanding of the connectivity of the various sections of California’s San Andreas Fault and has the potential to save lives by leading to more accurate earthquake modeling.”

200,000-year environmental history of continental shelf based on a deep-sea core from Okinawa Trough

This shows terrigenous palynomorphs of short-distance transportation: light microscope and scanning electron microscope photos of pollen and spore, plant debris and charcoals. -  © Science China Press
This shows terrigenous palynomorphs of short-distance transportation: light microscope and scanning electron microscope photos of pollen and spore, plant debris and charcoals. – © Science China Press

A new research paper shows that a great number of nearby terrigenous pollen and charcoal have been found from the deep-sea sediments of the last 200 kyrs in Okinawa Trough. It is tesitfied that the continental shelf of the East China Sea was exposed and covered with the huge wetland and grassland ecosystems during the the last two glacial periods. They discovered that the variation of terrestrial sources is concordent with global glacial volume and sea-level changes at orbital-scale since 200 kyrs before present. Their work, entitled “A ~200 ka pollen record from Okinawa Trough: Paleoenvironment reconstruction of glacial-interglacial cycles”, was published in SCIENCE CHINA Earth Sciences.2013, Vol 56 (doi: 10.1007/s11430-013-4619-0)

This research work concerns mainly the Quaternary environment and global chages based on pollen analysis from a deep-sea core in Okinawa Trough. The project was directed by Department of Earth Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, with colaboration of University Claude Bernard-Lyon 1 and Laboratory of Climate and Environment Sciences in Gif-sur-Yvette. The first author is professor ZHENG Zhuo from Sun Yat-sen University. Their research work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant no. 40772113, 41072128).

The discoreries show that terrestrial-source materials vary greatly during the transition of glacial and interglacial periods, proving the sensitive response on the global ice volume and sea-level changes. This deep-sea record has firstly documented high percentage of sedge, grass and many freshwater algaes in the glacial interval, which indicates that the offshore distance of Okinawa Trough has obviously shortened due to the exposed continental shelf during the glacial stages. The vegetation on the exposed continental shelf was dominated by intrazonal communities such as halophyte grasslands and freshwater wetlands. New evidence demonstrated that the fundamental changes of sediment sources in Okinawa Trough since ~200 ka BP were affected by combine factors including the offshore coastline distance, monsoon variability and sea-level changes.

This new research provides an oldest record of Quaternry environment reconstruction so far in the Okinawa Trough. It has a great scientific significance on highlighting the evolution history of continental shelf extension, the tracing of the sediment source areas of the Okinawa Trough and global climate changes since the last 200 kyrs.

Comprehensive analysis of impact spherules supports theory of cosmic impact 12,800 years ago

This is UCSB Earth Sciences professor emeritus James Kennett. -  Courtesy photo
This is UCSB Earth Sciences professor emeritus James Kennett. – Courtesy photo

About 12,800 years ago when the Earth was warming and emerging from the last ice age, a dramatic and anomalous event occurred that abruptly reversed climatic conditions back to near-glacial state. According to James Kennett, UC Santa Barbara emeritus professor in earth sciences, this climate switch fundamentally — and remarkably — occurred in only one year, heralding the onset of the Younger Dryas cool episode.

The cause of this cooling has been much debated, especially because it closely coincided with the abrupt extinction of the majority of the large animals then inhabiting the Americas, as well as the disappearance of the prehistoric Clovis culture, known for its big game hunting.

“What then did cause the extinction of most of these big animals, including mammoths, mastodons, giant ground sloths, American camel and horse, and saber- toothed cats?” asked Kennett, pointing to Charles Darwin’s 1845 assessment of the significance of climate change. “Did these extinctions result from human overkill, climatic change or some catastrophic event?” The long debate that has followed, Kennett noted, has recently been stimulated by a growing body of evidence in support of a theory that a major cosmic impact event was involved, a theory proposed by the scientific team that includes Kennett himself.

Now, in one of the most comprehensive related investigations ever, the group has documented a wide distribution of microspherules widely distributed in a layer over 50 million square kilometers on four continents, including North America, including Arlington Canyon on Santa Rosa Island in the Channel Islands. This layer — the Younger Dryas Boundary (YDB) layer — also contains peak abundances of other exotic materials, including nanodiamonds and other unusual forms of carbon such as fullerenes, as well as melt-glass and iridium. This new evidence in support of the cosmic impact theory appeared recently in a paper in the Proceedings of the National Academy of the Sciences.

This cosmic impact, said Kennett, caused major environmental degradation over wide areas through numerous processes that include continent-wide wildfires and a major increase in atmospheric dust load that blocked the sun long enough to cause starvation of larger animals.

Investigating 18 sites across North America, Europe and the Middle East, Kennett and 28 colleagues from 24 institutions analyzed the spherules, tiny spheres formed by the high temperature melting of rocks and soils that then cooled or quenched rapidly in the atmosphere. The process results from enormous heat and pressures in blasts generated by the cosmic impact, somewhat similar to those produced during atomic explosions, Kennett explained.

But spherules do not form from cosmic collisions alone. Volcanic activity, lightning strikes, and coal seam fires all can create the tiny spheres. So to differentiate between impact spherules and those formed by other processes, the research team utilized scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometry on nearly 700 spherule samples collected from the YDB layer. The YDB layer also corresponds with the end of the Clovis age, and is commonly associated with other features such as an overlying “black mat” — a thin, dark carbon-rich sedimentary layer — as well as the youngest known Clovis archeological material and megafaunal remains, and abundant charcoal that indicates massive biomass burning resulting from impact.

The results, according to Kennett, are compelling. Examinations of the YDB spherules revealed that while they are consistent with the type of sediment found on the surface of the earth in their areas at the time of impact, they are geochemically dissimilar from volcanic materials. Tests on their remanent magnetism — the remaining magnetism after the removal of an electric or magnetic influence — also demonstrated that the spherules could not have formed naturally during lightning strikes.

“Because requisite formation temperatures for the impact spherules are greater than 2,200 degrees Celsius, this finding precludes all but a high temperature cosmic impact event as a natural formation mechanism for melted silica and other minerals,” Kennett explained. Experiments by the group have for the first time demonstrated that silica-rich spherules can also form through high temperature incineration of plants, such as oaks, pines, and reeds, because these are known to contain biologically formed silica.

Additionally, according to the study, the surface textures of these spherules are consistent with high temperatures and high-velocity impacts, and they are often fused to other spherules. An estimated 10 million metric tons of impact spherules were deposited across nine countries in the four continents studied. However, the true breadth of the YDB strewnfield is unknown, indicating an impact of major proportions.

“Based on geochemical measurements and morphological observations, this paper offers compelling evidence to reject alternate hypotheses that YDB spherules formed by volcanic or human activity; from the ongoing natural accumulation of space dust; lightning strikes; or by slow geochemical accumulation in sediments,” said Kennett.

“This evidence continues to point to a major cosmic impact as the primary cause for the tragic loss of nearly all of the remarkable American large animals that had survived the stresses of many ice age periods only to be knocked out quite recently by this catastrophic event.”

Charcoal evidence tracks climate changes in Younger Dryas

A new study reports that charcoal particles left by wildfires in sediments of 35 North American lake beds don’t readily support the theory that comets exploding over the continent 12,900 years ago sparked a cooling period known as the Younger Dryas.

The study — appearing online this week ahead of regular publication in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences — however, did find clear links between abrupt climate changes and fire activity during the transition between the last Ice Age and the warm interglacial period that began 11,700 years ago. These links are also consistent with the impacts of climate-change conditions on wildfires during recent decades in North America, the researchers noted.

Charcoal particles, along with tree pollen, provide snapshots of types of vegetation and frequencies of wildfire activity in a given area, said study co-author Patrick J. Bartlein, a professor of geography at the University of Oregon. His doctoral student Jennifer R. Marlon led the collaborative study of 23 co-authors (including seven current or former UO students) at institutions in the U.S., Canada and Europe.

“The charcoal data don’t support the idea of widespread fires at the beginning of the Younger Dryas interval,” Bartlein said. “The results don’t reject the comet hypothesis, but do suggest that one element of it — widespread fires — didn’t occur. Instead, the data show that biomass burning tracked general climate changes closely. Biomass burning increased as conditions warmed during deglaciation until the beginning of the Younger Dryas cold interval at 12,900 years ago, leveled off during the cool interval, and then increased again as warming resumed after the end of the cold interval, about 11,700 years ago.”

The fires that left the charcoal records reflect the impact of climate changes independent of potential contributions of early Paleoindians who may have been living on the continent. Proponents of the comet theory suggest Clovis culture may have been dramatically disrupted across the continent.

Marlon began the National Science Foundation-sponsored study of charcoal-pollen records soon after the comet theory was proposed in PNAS by an international team of 26 researchers led by Richard B. Firestone. A co-author of that study, UO archaeologist Douglas Kennett, in the Jan. 2 issue of Science, documented the existence of possible comet-triggered nanodiamond-rich soil at six North American sites dating to 12,900 years ago in apparent support of the hypothesis. The formation of nanodiamonds requires intense pressure and heat, much higher than those of biomass wildfires but possible in comet explosions.

“We had the data to look for widespread fires if they had occurred,” Marlon said, “but what we saw instead was a general increase in biomass burning whenever the climate warmed.”

The lakes containing the charcoal are in Alaska (3 sites), British Columbia (7), U.S. Pacific Northwest (6), the Sierra Nevada (3), northern U.S. Rocky Mountains (6), Southwest (4), Midwest (2), Northeast (3 sites in Quebec), and Southeast (1). Thirty of the samples came from the Global Charcoal Database; another five were drawn from more recent research by co-authors currently studying sediments from the Younger Dryas.

The new study’s conclusion that climate is a major control of wildfires matched that of a study published last year in Nature Geosciences by the same researchers on global biomass burning over the last 2,000 years. “Together,” Bartlein said, “these studies suggest that episodes of global warming are accompanied by increases in wildfires.”

Climate change, human activity and wildfires

2000-year fire track
2000-year fire track

Study of last 2,000 years of charcoal evidence suggests human impacts have curtailed fires in most areas

Climate has been implicated by a new study as a major driver of wildfires in the last 2,000 years. But human activities, such as land clearance and fire suppression during the industrial era (since 1750) have created large swings in burning, first increasing fires until the late 1800s, and then dramatically reducing burning in the 20th century.

The study by a nine-member team from seven institutions — led by Jennifer R. Marlon, a doctoral student in geography department at the University of Oregon — appears online ahead of regular publication in the journal Nature Geoscience. The team analyzed 406 sedimentary charcoal records from lake beds on six continents.

A 100-year decline in wildfires worldwide — from 1870 to 1970 — was recorded despite increasing temperatures and population growth, researchers found. “Based on the charcoal record,” Marlon said, “we believe the reduction in the amount of biomass burned during those 100 years can be attributed to a global expansion of agriculture and intensive grazing of livestock that reduced fuels plus general landscape fragmentation and fire-management efforts.”

Observations of increased burning associated with global warming and fuel build-up during the past 30 years, however, are not yet included in the sediment record.

Charcoal levels have drawn attention during the past 25 years because these data can track wildfire activity — both incidence and severity — over long time periods, providing information when similar data from satellites or fire-scarred trees do not exist. This study is among early efforts to analyze charcoal records for widespread patterns and trends over such a long period.

The importance of the data presented by Marlon’s team is put into perspective of overall information about the history of wildfires in a “News & Views” article, also appearing online, written by Andrew C. Scott, an earth sciences researcher at the University of London.

During the last 2,000 years, fire activity was highest between 1750 and 1870. “This was a period when several factors combined to generate conditions favorable to wildfires,” Marlon said. “Population growth and European colonization caused massive changes in land cover, and human-induced increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations may have started to increase biomass levels and fuels.”

From A.D. 1 to about 1750, wildfires worldwide declined from earlier years, probably resulting from a long-term global cooling trend that offset any possible influence of population growth and related land-use changes. Researchers pointed to charcoal evidence in western North America as an example of this trend. Similar records also were found in Central America and tropical areas of South America. In the western U.S. and in Asia, researchers noted, “initial colonization may have been marked by an increased use of fire for land clearance.”

Subsequently, expansion of intensive agriculture and grazing, as well as forest management activities, likely reduced wildfire activity, Marlon said. “Our results strongly suggest that climate change has been the main driver of global biomass burning for the past two millennia,” the researchers concluded. “The decline in biomass burning after A.D. 1870 is opposite to the expected effect of rising carbon dioxide and rapid warming, but contemporaneous with an unprecedentedly high rate of population increase.”

The eight co-authors with Marlon were: Patrick J. Bartlein and Daniel G. Gavin, professors in the geography department and members of the Environmental Change Research Group; C. Carcaillet of the Centre for Bio-Archaeology and Ecology in Montpellier, France; S.P. Harrison and I.C. Prentice, both of the University of Bristol in the United Kingdom; P.E. Higuera of Montana State University in Bozeman, Mont.; F. Joos of the Physics Institute and Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research in Bern, Switzerland; and Mitchell .J. Power of the University of Utah in Salt Lake City and a curator at the Utah Museum of Natural History.

The National Science Foundation in the United States and Natural Environment Research Council in the United Kingdom funded the research.