The Consumer’s Guide to Minerals

This digital exclusive is an important reference for students of applied science, geology and economics; practicing engineers and professional geoscientists in government service, environment and sustainability; and those professionals working in the minerals industry or those serving the minerals industry. -  The American Geosciences Institute
This digital exclusive is an important reference for students of applied science, geology and economics; practicing engineers and professional geoscientists in government service, environment and sustainability; and those professionals working in the minerals industry or those serving the minerals industry. – The American Geosciences Institute

The American Geosciences Institute (AGI) announces the release of its latest digital-only publication, “The Consumer’s Guide to Minerals.”

The importance of minerals in our everyday lives cannot be underestimated. “The Consumer’s Guide to Minerals” is a different take on them. Rather than focusing on visual and physical properties, this book explores minerals’ myriad uses in scientific research, manufacturing, medicine and many commercial applications some of which may even shock you. This digital exclusive is an important reference for students of applied science, geology and economics; practicing engineers and professional geoscientists in government service, environment and sustainability; and those professionals working in the minerals industry or those serving the minerals industry.

“The Consumer’s Guide to Minerals” (ISBN 978-0-922152-95-7) is a compilation of monthly articles from EARTH Magazine, edited by Megan Sever and Dr. Christopher M. Keane. The Guide is a collaborative effort between EARTH Magazine and the U.S. Geological Survey.

The Consumer’s Guide to Minerals

This digital exclusive is an important reference for students of applied science, geology and economics; practicing engineers and professional geoscientists in government service, environment and sustainability; and those professionals working in the minerals industry or those serving the minerals industry. -  The American Geosciences Institute
This digital exclusive is an important reference for students of applied science, geology and economics; practicing engineers and professional geoscientists in government service, environment and sustainability; and those professionals working in the minerals industry or those serving the minerals industry. – The American Geosciences Institute

The American Geosciences Institute (AGI) announces the release of its latest digital-only publication, “The Consumer’s Guide to Minerals.”

The importance of minerals in our everyday lives cannot be underestimated. “The Consumer’s Guide to Minerals” is a different take on them. Rather than focusing on visual and physical properties, this book explores minerals’ myriad uses in scientific research, manufacturing, medicine and many commercial applications some of which may even shock you. This digital exclusive is an important reference for students of applied science, geology and economics; practicing engineers and professional geoscientists in government service, environment and sustainability; and those professionals working in the minerals industry or those serving the minerals industry.

“The Consumer’s Guide to Minerals” (ISBN 978-0-922152-95-7) is a compilation of monthly articles from EARTH Magazine, edited by Megan Sever and Dr. Christopher M. Keane. The Guide is a collaborative effort between EARTH Magazine and the U.S. Geological Survey.

Mercyhurst, Vanderbilt research targets supervolcanoes

The National Science Foundation has awarded Mercyhurst and Vanderbilt universities a $354,000 grant to engage students in researching one of Earth’s rarest yet deadliest acts — the eruption of a supervolcano.

The Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) three-year project will take 10-12 students per year into northwest Arizona to study an extinct supervolcano. Students will select their own research pursuit, follow up with lab work at either Mercyhurst or Vanderbilt and, ultimately, present their findings at a national conference.

“The emphasis of this project is to engage students in scientific research, which is consistent with Mercyhurst’s commitment to hands-on learning,” said principal investigator Nick Lang, Ph.D., an assistant professor of geology at Mercyhurst. His project colleague at Vanderbilt is Lily Claiborne, Ph.D.

Lang said the research initiative targets students from diverse backgrounds. “We are looking for talented students, with a particular emphasis on returning veterans, first-generation college students and minorities who will do original research and contribute to the large body of work on supervolcanoes,” he said.

Comprehending what led to supereruptions in the past is essential to understanding and predicting similar events. A supereruption, Lang said, is a volcanic explosion that erupts a volume of material greater than 1,000 km3. This can be about a thousand times larger than normal volcanic eruptions. The deadly 1980 Mount St. Helens explosion, for instance, ejected only 1 cubic km3 of volcanic material, Lang said.

The 10-12 students chosen to participate in each of the three years will hone their geology field skills by investigating the Silver Creek caldera, which produced the Peach Spring Tuff (PST) supereruption nearly 19 million years ago. The PST is exposed over 32,000 km² of western Arizona, southeastern California and southern Nevada.

Students studying the region’s geologic record will guide their research around questions like: What does a supervolcano look like before it erupts? How and why do large magmatic systems change over time? How does supereruptive magmatism (ex., PST) compare with typical-scale magmatism (ex., Mt.St. Helens)?

Lang said he is eager to get started on the research, which will begin in late December or early January in Arizona followed by another field session in the summer. Students will also complete their lab work during the summer, attending either Mercyhurst or Vanderbilt.

“This is an exciting opportunity for us because these grants (National Science Foundation) are difficult to obtain,” Lang said. “The success rate for a project to be funded is 20 to 25 percent.”

Mercyhurst, Vanderbilt research targets supervolcanoes

The National Science Foundation has awarded Mercyhurst and Vanderbilt universities a $354,000 grant to engage students in researching one of Earth’s rarest yet deadliest acts — the eruption of a supervolcano.

The Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) three-year project will take 10-12 students per year into northwest Arizona to study an extinct supervolcano. Students will select their own research pursuit, follow up with lab work at either Mercyhurst or Vanderbilt and, ultimately, present their findings at a national conference.

“The emphasis of this project is to engage students in scientific research, which is consistent with Mercyhurst’s commitment to hands-on learning,” said principal investigator Nick Lang, Ph.D., an assistant professor of geology at Mercyhurst. His project colleague at Vanderbilt is Lily Claiborne, Ph.D.

Lang said the research initiative targets students from diverse backgrounds. “We are looking for talented students, with a particular emphasis on returning veterans, first-generation college students and minorities who will do original research and contribute to the large body of work on supervolcanoes,” he said.

Comprehending what led to supereruptions in the past is essential to understanding and predicting similar events. A supereruption, Lang said, is a volcanic explosion that erupts a volume of material greater than 1,000 km3. This can be about a thousand times larger than normal volcanic eruptions. The deadly 1980 Mount St. Helens explosion, for instance, ejected only 1 cubic km3 of volcanic material, Lang said.

The 10-12 students chosen to participate in each of the three years will hone their geology field skills by investigating the Silver Creek caldera, which produced the Peach Spring Tuff (PST) supereruption nearly 19 million years ago. The PST is exposed over 32,000 km² of western Arizona, southeastern California and southern Nevada.

Students studying the region’s geologic record will guide their research around questions like: What does a supervolcano look like before it erupts? How and why do large magmatic systems change over time? How does supereruptive magmatism (ex., PST) compare with typical-scale magmatism (ex., Mt.St. Helens)?

Lang said he is eager to get started on the research, which will begin in late December or early January in Arizona followed by another field session in the summer. Students will also complete their lab work during the summer, attending either Mercyhurst or Vanderbilt.

“This is an exciting opportunity for us because these grants (National Science Foundation) are difficult to obtain,” Lang said. “The success rate for a project to be funded is 20 to 25 percent.”

Quake-triggered landslides pose significant hazard for Seattle, new study details potential damage

Locations of each zoom-in are shown on the map of Seattle at right. A) Coastal bluffs in the northern part of Seattle are most affected when soils are saturated. B) There are several areas along the I-5 corridor that are highly susceptible to landsliding for all soil saturation levels, such as the area shown here near the access point to the West Seattle bridge. C) The hillsides in West Seattle along the Duwamish valley are at risk of seismically induced landsliding, such as the area shown here. There are industrial as well as 59 residential buildings that could be affected by runout from landsliding in these areas. D) The coastal bluffs along Puget Sound in West Seattle on the hanging wall of the fault, such as the area shown here, are the most highly susceptible areas to landsliding in the city; numerous residential structures are at risk from both potential landslide source areas and runout. -  Allstadt/BSSA
Locations of each zoom-in are shown on the map of Seattle at right. A) Coastal bluffs in the northern part of Seattle are most affected when soils are saturated. B) There are several areas along the I-5 corridor that are highly susceptible to landsliding for all soil saturation levels, such as the area shown here near the access point to the West Seattle bridge. C) The hillsides in West Seattle along the Duwamish valley are at risk of seismically induced landsliding, such as the area shown here. There are industrial as well as 59 residential buildings that could be affected by runout from landsliding in these areas. D) The coastal bluffs along Puget Sound in West Seattle on the hanging wall of the fault, such as the area shown here, are the most highly susceptible areas to landsliding in the city; numerous residential structures are at risk from both potential landslide source areas and runout. – Allstadt/BSSA

A new study suggests the next big quake on the Seattle fault may cause devastating damage from landslides, greater than previously thought and beyond the areas currently defined as prone to landslides. Published online Oct. 22 by the Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America (BSSA), the research offers a framework for simulating hundreds of earthquake scenarios for the Seattle area.

“A major quake along the Seattle fault is among the worst case scenarios for the area since the fault runs just south of downtown. Our study shows the need for dedicated studies on seismically induced landsliding” said co-author Kate Allstadt, doctoral student at University of Washington.

Seattle is prone to strong shaking as it sits atop the Seattle Basin – a deep sedimentary basin that amplifies ground motion and generates strong seismic waves that tend to increase the duration of the shaking. The broader region is vulnerable to earthquakes from multiple sources, including deep earthquakes within the subducted Juan de Fuca plate, offshore megathrust earthquakes on Cascadia subduction zone and the shallow crustal earthquakes within the North American Plate.

For Seattle, a shallow crustal earthquake close to the city would be most damaging. The last major quake along the Seattle fault was in 900 AD, long before the city was established, though native people lived in the area. The earthquake triggered giant landslides along Lake Washington, causing entire blocks of forest to slide into the lake.

“There’s a kind of haunting precedence that tells us that we should pay attention to a large earthquake on this fault because it happened in the past,” said Allstadt, who also serves as duty seismologist for the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network. John Vidale of University of Washington and Art Frankel of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) are co-authors of the study, which was funded by the USGS.

While landslides triggered by earthquakes have caused damage and casualties worldwide, they have not often been the subject of extensive quantitative study or fully incorporated into seismic hazard assessments, say authors of this study that looks at just one scenario among potentially hundreds for a major earthquake in the Seattle area.

Dividing the area into a grid of 210-meter cells, they simulated ground motion for a magnitude 7 Seattle fault earthquake and then further subdivided into 5-meter cells, applying anticipated amplification of shaking due to the shallow soil layers. This refined framework yielded some surprises.

“One-third of the landslides triggered by our simulation were outside of the areas designated by the city as prone to landsliding,” said Allstadt. “A lot of people assume that all landslides occur in the same areas, but those triggered by rainfall or human behavior have a different triggering mechanism than landslides caused by earthquakes so we need dedicated studies.”

While soil saturation — whether the soil is dry or saturated with water – is the most important factor when analyzing the potential impact of landslides, the details of ground motion rank second. The amplification of ground shaking, directivity of seismic energy and geological features that may affect ground motion are very important to the outcome of ground failure, say authors.

The authors stress that this is just one randomized scenario study of many potential earthquake scenarios that could strike the city. While the results do not delineate the exact areas that will be affected in a future earthquake, they do illustrate the extent of landsliding to expect for a similar event.

The study suggests the southern half of the city and the coastal bluffs, many of which are developed, would be hardest hit. Depending upon the water saturation level of the soil at the time of the earthquake, several hundred to thousands of buildings could be affected citywide. For dry soil conditions, there are more than 1000 buildings that are within all hazard zones, 400 of those in the two highest hazard designation zones. The analysis suggests landslides could also affect some inland slopes, threatening key transit routes and impeding recovery efforts. For saturated soil conditions, it is an order of magnitude worse, with 8000 buildings within all hazard zones, 5000 of those within the two highest hazard zones. These numbers only reflect the number of buildings in high-risk areas, not the number of buildings that would necessarily suffer damage.

“The extra time we took to include the refined ground motion detail was worth it. It made a significant difference to our understanding of the potential damage to Seattle from seismically triggered landslides,” said Allstadt, who would like to use the new framework to run many more scenarios to prepare for future earthquakes in Seattle.

Quake-triggered landslides pose significant hazard for Seattle, new study details potential damage

Locations of each zoom-in are shown on the map of Seattle at right. A) Coastal bluffs in the northern part of Seattle are most affected when soils are saturated. B) There are several areas along the I-5 corridor that are highly susceptible to landsliding for all soil saturation levels, such as the area shown here near the access point to the West Seattle bridge. C) The hillsides in West Seattle along the Duwamish valley are at risk of seismically induced landsliding, such as the area shown here. There are industrial as well as 59 residential buildings that could be affected by runout from landsliding in these areas. D) The coastal bluffs along Puget Sound in West Seattle on the hanging wall of the fault, such as the area shown here, are the most highly susceptible areas to landsliding in the city; numerous residential structures are at risk from both potential landslide source areas and runout. -  Allstadt/BSSA
Locations of each zoom-in are shown on the map of Seattle at right. A) Coastal bluffs in the northern part of Seattle are most affected when soils are saturated. B) There are several areas along the I-5 corridor that are highly susceptible to landsliding for all soil saturation levels, such as the area shown here near the access point to the West Seattle bridge. C) The hillsides in West Seattle along the Duwamish valley are at risk of seismically induced landsliding, such as the area shown here. There are industrial as well as 59 residential buildings that could be affected by runout from landsliding in these areas. D) The coastal bluffs along Puget Sound in West Seattle on the hanging wall of the fault, such as the area shown here, are the most highly susceptible areas to landsliding in the city; numerous residential structures are at risk from both potential landslide source areas and runout. – Allstadt/BSSA

A new study suggests the next big quake on the Seattle fault may cause devastating damage from landslides, greater than previously thought and beyond the areas currently defined as prone to landslides. Published online Oct. 22 by the Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America (BSSA), the research offers a framework for simulating hundreds of earthquake scenarios for the Seattle area.

“A major quake along the Seattle fault is among the worst case scenarios for the area since the fault runs just south of downtown. Our study shows the need for dedicated studies on seismically induced landsliding” said co-author Kate Allstadt, doctoral student at University of Washington.

Seattle is prone to strong shaking as it sits atop the Seattle Basin – a deep sedimentary basin that amplifies ground motion and generates strong seismic waves that tend to increase the duration of the shaking. The broader region is vulnerable to earthquakes from multiple sources, including deep earthquakes within the subducted Juan de Fuca plate, offshore megathrust earthquakes on Cascadia subduction zone and the shallow crustal earthquakes within the North American Plate.

For Seattle, a shallow crustal earthquake close to the city would be most damaging. The last major quake along the Seattle fault was in 900 AD, long before the city was established, though native people lived in the area. The earthquake triggered giant landslides along Lake Washington, causing entire blocks of forest to slide into the lake.

“There’s a kind of haunting precedence that tells us that we should pay attention to a large earthquake on this fault because it happened in the past,” said Allstadt, who also serves as duty seismologist for the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network. John Vidale of University of Washington and Art Frankel of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) are co-authors of the study, which was funded by the USGS.

While landslides triggered by earthquakes have caused damage and casualties worldwide, they have not often been the subject of extensive quantitative study or fully incorporated into seismic hazard assessments, say authors of this study that looks at just one scenario among potentially hundreds for a major earthquake in the Seattle area.

Dividing the area into a grid of 210-meter cells, they simulated ground motion for a magnitude 7 Seattle fault earthquake and then further subdivided into 5-meter cells, applying anticipated amplification of shaking due to the shallow soil layers. This refined framework yielded some surprises.

“One-third of the landslides triggered by our simulation were outside of the areas designated by the city as prone to landsliding,” said Allstadt. “A lot of people assume that all landslides occur in the same areas, but those triggered by rainfall or human behavior have a different triggering mechanism than landslides caused by earthquakes so we need dedicated studies.”

While soil saturation — whether the soil is dry or saturated with water – is the most important factor when analyzing the potential impact of landslides, the details of ground motion rank second. The amplification of ground shaking, directivity of seismic energy and geological features that may affect ground motion are very important to the outcome of ground failure, say authors.

The authors stress that this is just one randomized scenario study of many potential earthquake scenarios that could strike the city. While the results do not delineate the exact areas that will be affected in a future earthquake, they do illustrate the extent of landsliding to expect for a similar event.

The study suggests the southern half of the city and the coastal bluffs, many of which are developed, would be hardest hit. Depending upon the water saturation level of the soil at the time of the earthquake, several hundred to thousands of buildings could be affected citywide. For dry soil conditions, there are more than 1000 buildings that are within all hazard zones, 400 of those in the two highest hazard designation zones. The analysis suggests landslides could also affect some inland slopes, threatening key transit routes and impeding recovery efforts. For saturated soil conditions, it is an order of magnitude worse, with 8000 buildings within all hazard zones, 5000 of those within the two highest hazard zones. These numbers only reflect the number of buildings in high-risk areas, not the number of buildings that would necessarily suffer damage.

“The extra time we took to include the refined ground motion detail was worth it. It made a significant difference to our understanding of the potential damage to Seattle from seismically triggered landslides,” said Allstadt, who would like to use the new framework to run many more scenarios to prepare for future earthquakes in Seattle.

Groundbreaking report details status of US secondary Earth science education

The Center for Geoscience Education and Public Understanding at the American Geosciences Institute has released a landmark report on the status of Earth Science education in U.S. middle and high schools, describing in detail significant gaps between identified priorities and lagging practice.

The report, “Earth and Space Sciences Education in U.S. Secondary Schools: Key Indicators and Trends,” offers baseline data on indicators of the subject’s status since the release of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) in April 2013. Establishing clear aims for the subject, the NGSS state that the Earth and Space Sciences should have equal status with the Life Sciences, Physical Sciences, Technology, and Engineering. However, the report shows that school districts and other organizations fail to assign the Earth Sciences this status.

Only one of the nation’s 50 states requires a year-long Earth/Environmental Science course for high school graduation, whereas 32 states require a Life Science course, and 27 require a Physical Science course, according to the report. Only six states require that students are taught Earth Science concepts as part of their graduation requirements. Detailed and analyzed are key indicators including:

  • presence of Earth Science topics in state and national standards;

  • consideration of Earth Science as a graduation requirement;

  • evaluation of Earth Science concepts on high-stakes assessments; and

  • acceptance of Earth Science courses for college admission.

Recommendations for better treatment of Earth Science subject matter include changes in the subject’s relevance to graduation requirements, the discipline’s presence on assessments, designation of Earth Science courses as laboratory courses, and establishment of an Advanced Placement Earth Science program.

Groundbreaking report details status of US secondary Earth science education

The Center for Geoscience Education and Public Understanding at the American Geosciences Institute has released a landmark report on the status of Earth Science education in U.S. middle and high schools, describing in detail significant gaps between identified priorities and lagging practice.

The report, “Earth and Space Sciences Education in U.S. Secondary Schools: Key Indicators and Trends,” offers baseline data on indicators of the subject’s status since the release of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) in April 2013. Establishing clear aims for the subject, the NGSS state that the Earth and Space Sciences should have equal status with the Life Sciences, Physical Sciences, Technology, and Engineering. However, the report shows that school districts and other organizations fail to assign the Earth Sciences this status.

Only one of the nation’s 50 states requires a year-long Earth/Environmental Science course for high school graduation, whereas 32 states require a Life Science course, and 27 require a Physical Science course, according to the report. Only six states require that students are taught Earth Science concepts as part of their graduation requirements. Detailed and analyzed are key indicators including:

  • presence of Earth Science topics in state and national standards;

  • consideration of Earth Science as a graduation requirement;

  • evaluation of Earth Science concepts on high-stakes assessments; and

  • acceptance of Earth Science courses for college admission.

Recommendations for better treatment of Earth Science subject matter include changes in the subject’s relevance to graduation requirements, the discipline’s presence on assessments, designation of Earth Science courses as laboratory courses, and establishment of an Advanced Placement Earth Science program.

The complicated birth of a volcano

Snow storms, ice and glaciers – these are the usual images we associate with the Antarctic. But at the same time it is also a region of fire: the Antarctic continent and surrounding waters are dotted with volcanoes – some of them still active and others extinct for quite some time. The Marie Byrd Seamounts in the Amundsen Sea are in the latter group. Their summit plateaus are today at depths of 2400-1600 meters. Because they are very difficult to reach with conventional research vessels, they have hardly been explored, even though the Marie Byrd Seamounts are fascinating formations. They do not fit any of the usual models for the formation of volcanoes. Now geologists from GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel were able to find a possible explanation for the existence of these seamounts on the basis of rare specimens. The study is published in the international journal “Gondwana Research“.

Classic volcanologists differentiate between two types of fire mountains. One type is generated where tectonic plates meet, so the earth’s crust is already cracked to begin with. The other type is formed within the earth’s plates. “The latter are called intraplate volcanoes. They are often found above a so-called mantle plume. Hot material rises from the deep mantle, collects under the earth’s crust, makes its way to the surface and forms a volcano,” said Dr. Reinhard Werner, one of the authors of the current paper. One example are the Hawaiian Islands. But neither of the above models fits the Marie Byrd Seamounts. “There are no plate boundary in the vicinity and no plume underground,” says graduate geologist Andrea Kipf from GEOMAR, first author of the study.

To clarify the origin of the Marie Byrd Seamounts, in 2006 the Kiel scientists participated in an expedition of the research vessel POLARSTEN in the Amundsen Sea. They salvaged rock samples from the seamounts and subjected these to thorough geological, volcanological and geochemical investigations after returning to the home labs. “Interestingly enough, we found chemical signatures that are typical of plume volcanoes. And they are very similar to volcanoes in New Zealand and the Antarctic continent,” says geochemist Dr. Folkmar Hauff, second author of the paper.

Based on this finding, the researchers sought an explanation. They found it in the history of tectonic plates in the southern hemisphere. Around 100 million years ago, remains of the former supercontinent Gondwana were located in the area of present Antarctica. A mantle plume melted through this continental plate and cracked it open. Two new continents were born: the Antarctic and “Zealandia”, with the islands of New Zealand still in evidence today. When the young continents drifted in different directions away from the mantle plume, large quantities of hot plume material were attached to their undersides. These formed reservoirs for future volcanic eruptions on the two continents. “This process explains why we find signatures of plume material at volcanoes that are not on top of plumes,” says Dr. Hauff.

But that still does not explain the Marie Byrd Seamounts because they are not located on the Antarctic continent, but on the adjacent oceanic crust instead. “Continental tectonic plates are thicker than the oceanic ones. This ensures, among other things, differences in temperature in the underground,” says volcanologist Dr. Werner. And just as air masses of different temperatures create winds, the temperature differences under the earth’s crust generate flows and movements as well. Thus the plume material, that once lay beneath the continent, was able to shift under the oceanic plate. With disruptions due to other tectonic processes, there were cracks and crevices which allowed the hot material to rise, turn into magma and then- about 60 million years ago – allowed the Marie Byrd Seamounts to grow. “This created islands are comparable to the Canary Islands today,” explains Andrea Kipf. “Some day the volcanoes became extinct again, wind and weather eroded the cone down to sea level, and other geological processes further eroded the seamounts. Finally, the summit plateaus arrived at the level that we know today,” the PhD student describes the last step of the development.

Based on the previously little investigated Marie Byrd Seamounts, the researchers were able to show another example of how diverse and complex the processes are, that can cause volcanism. “We are still far from understanding all of these processes. But with the current study, we can contribute a small piece to the overall picture,” says Dr. Werner.

Glacial history affects shape and growth habit of alpine plants

Climate change reflects in the morphology and genes of plants. -  (Image: University of Basel / Jürg Stöcklin)
Climate change reflects in the morphology and genes of plants. – (Image: University of Basel / Jürg Stöcklin)

Alpine plants that survived the Ice Ages in different locations still show accrued differences in appearance and features. These findings were made by botanists from the University of Basel using two plant species. So far, it was only known that the glacial climate changes had left a «genetic fingerprint» in the DNA of alpine plants.

During the Ice Ages the European Alps were covered by a thick layer of ice. Climate fluctuations led to great changes in the occurrences of plants: They survived the cold periods in refugia on the periphery of the Alps which they then repopulated after the ice had drawn back. Such processes in the history of the earth can be detected by molecular analysis as «genetic fingerprints»: refugia and colonization routes can be identified as genetic groups within the plant species. Thus, the postglacial colonization history of alpine plants is still borne in plants alive today.

Yellow Bellflower and Creeping Avens


So far, it was unknown if the Ice Ages also affected the structure and growth habit of alpine plants. Prof. Jürg Stöcklin and his colleagues from the Institute of Botany at the University of Basel were now able to proof this phenomenon in two publications. The glacial periods have left marks on the Yellow Bellflower and the Creeping Avens that are visible to the naked eye. The ancestors of these plants survived the Ice Ages in different glacial refugia which led to the fact that today they show genetic differences in their external morphology and in important functional traits.

Notably, the Yellow Bellflower’s inflorescence and timing of flowering differ between plants from the Eastern Alps and plants from the central or western parts of the Alps. Regarding the Creeping Avens, plants from the Western Alps show significantly more offshoots but have fewer flowers than those from the Eastern Alps, while the dissection of the leaves increases from West to East.

Plants are more adaptable than assumed

The Botanists from Basel further discovered that the variations within one species are partly due to natural selection. For example, the timing of flowering in the Yellow Bellflower can be explained with variability in growing season length. Plants shorten their flowering duration as adaptation to the shorter growing seasons at higher elevations.

«The findings are important for understanding the effects that future climate changes may have on plants», says Stöcklin. «The glacial periods have positively affected the intraspecific biodiversity.» Furthermore, the scientists were able to show that plants are more adaptable than has been assumed previously. Climate changes do have an effect on the distribution of species; however, alpine plants also possess considerable skills to genetically adapt to changing environmental conditions.